Estimates showed that HIV prevalence among adults aged 15 to 49 decreased to 0.9 percent in 2006 from 1.2% in 2003. HIV prevalence was estimated to have dropped to 0.7 percent in the urrent reporting period (2008-2009). The projections are based on the assumption that interventions are sustained at the same level. Epidemiological data show that the epidemic in Cambodia is concentrated among sex workers and entertainment workers, men who have sex with men and injecting drug users. Although prevention programmes have had significant results, HIV prevalence among these most-at-risk populations continues to be high and there is a general consensus that there is a real risk of a second-wave of HIV infections within these groups.
Source: UNGASS, Cambodia Progress Report, April 2010
There is low HIV prevalence among young people aged 15-24 compared to the general population. However, young women are far more often infected than men by HIV: respectively 3.9% versus 1.1% in urban areas and 1% versus 0.3% in rural areas. Behavioural studies show a mixed picture, with different sources showing very different results in terms of reported knowledge, condom use, and partner exchange rates. Regional variations are observed in data, related to both prevalence and risk behaviour. Most at risk populations for HIV infections are HIV sero-discordant couples (2.2% of heterosexual couples are HIV positive); commercial sex workers (although the extent of the commercial sex industry remains difficult to characterize in Rwanda); prisoners; truck drivers; men who have sex with men (MSM), for which a first behavioural study was carried out in Kigali in 2008-2009 suggesting that MSM in Kigali are at elevated risk for HIV infection compared to the general population. There is not information currently available for Injecting drug users.
Source: UNGASS, Rwanda Progress Report , April 2010
South Africa is one of the countries most severely affected by the AIDS epidemic, with the largest number of HIV infections in the world. UNAIDS estimated that in 2009, the total number of persons living with HIV in South Africa was 5.7 million. South Africa’s generalised HIV epidemic is defined as being hyper-endemic due to the high rate of HIV prevalence and the modes and drivers of HIV transmission. Heterosexual sex is recognized as the predominant mode of HIV transmission in the country followed by mother-to-child transmission, and drivers of the epidemic include migration, low perceptions of risk, and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships.
Source: UNGASS, South Africa Progress Report , April 2010
Sexual transmission continues to contribute 76% of new HIV infections while mother to child transmission contributes 22%. Currently, estimates indicate that over 100,000 new infections occur annually (during 2008, an estimated 110,694 new HIV infections occurred countrywide and approximately 61,306 people died from AIDS related illness in 2008). There is evidence of trends of apparent reversals in uptake and practice of preventive sexual behavior in the general population, especially among adults and men.
Source: UNGASS, Uganda Progress Report, April 2010
Expansion rates of access to antiretroviral therapy in Ukraine remain low so far. According to recent estimates, almost 23,000 patients needed antiretroviral medication in 2009 whereas 15,871 received it. The rate of treatment of active injecting drug users remains limited (according to 2009 data, only 7.5% of the total number of those receiving ART) because of insufficient availability of substitution maintenance therapy, and hence problems with forming adherence to ART.
Source: UNGASS, Ukraine Progress Report, April 2010